What Is Rotavirus?
| What Is the Rotavirus Vaccine?
| Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?
| What Are the Risks Associated With the Rotavirus Vaccine?
| Who Should Not Get Vaccinated?
| What Other Ways Can Rotavirus Be Prevented Besides Vaccination?
| What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak?
What Is Rotavirus?
Rotavirus is a virus that is transmitted through stool. It is easily spread by contaminated hands and objects.
Symptoms usually begin about two days after contact with the virus. Symptoms may include:
Rotavirus rarely causes death in developed countries. It can be fatal in many undeveloped countries.
What Is the Rotavirus Vaccine?
The rotavirus vaccine is given by mouth. This is a live virus vaccine. This means it contains a living virus can produce immunity to the disease.
The vaccine comes in two brands, RotaTeq and Rotarix.
Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?
Your baby will need two or three doses. The number of doses depends on which type of vaccine your baby gets. The recommended schedule for giving these doses is:
- 2 months for first dose
- 4 months for second dose
- 6 months for third dose (if needed)
This vaccine is not given to older children or adults.
What Are the Risks Associated With the Rotavirus Vaccine?
As with any vaccine, there is a small risk of severe reaction, such as a severe allergic reaction.
Most infants get the vaccine without any problems. In a small number of cases, children may have mild diarrhea or vomiting after getting the vaccine.
There may be a very small risk of a serious bowel obstruction called
Who Should Not Get Vaccinated?
Children should not get the vaccine if they:
- Have had a life-threatening allergic reaction from a previous dose or any of its components
- Are very ill (They can get the vaccine after recovering.)
- Have severe combined immunodeficiency
- Have had intussusception or have an abnormality of the intestine (increasing the risk of intussusception)
Talk to your doctor if your child has a weak immune system due to the following:
What Other Ways Can Rotavirus Be Prevented Besides Vaccination?
It is important that you wash your hands and practice good hygiene. However, these steps have not been shown to significantly prevent rotavirus.
What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak?
In the event of an outbreak, authorities will test food and water sources to make sure they are not contaminated. Frequent hand washing and washing of surfaces is recommended to keep the virus from spreading. Dirty linens and clothes should be handled as little as possible. These items should be laundered with detergent and machine-dried.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
Baker CJ, Pickerling LK, Chilton L, et al. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended adult immunization schedule: United States, 2011.
Ann Intern Med.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Addition of history of intussusception as a contraindication for rotavirus vaccination.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:1427.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years—United States, 2011.
Ciarlet M, Schodel F. Development of a rotavirus vaccine: clinical safety,
immunogenicity, and efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq.
Desai SN, Esposito DB, Shapiro ED, Dennehy PH, Vázquez M. Effectiveness of
rotavirus vaccine in preventing hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis
in young children in Connecticut, USA.
2010 Sep 16.
O'Ryan M, Linhares AC. Update on Rotarix: an oral human rotavirus vaccine.
Expert Rev Vaccines.
Rotavirus: symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/rotavirus/about/symptoms.html. Updated October 28, 2010. Accessed November 30, 2012.
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/rotavirus/default.htm. Updated November 30, 2012. Accessed November 30, 2012.
Rotavirus vaccine. Centers for Disease and Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-rotavirus.pdf. Updated December 6, 2010. Accessed November 30, 2012.
Vaccine information sheet: Rotavirus vaccine. Centers for Disease and Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-rotavirus.pdf. Update December 6, 2010. Accessed November 30, 2012.
Vaccines. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at:
http://www.fda.gov/cber/vaccines.htm. Accessed November 30, 2012.
1/31/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years—United States, 2008.
2008;57;Q1-Q4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5701a8.htm. Updated January 10, 2008. Accessed January 28, 2008.
4/14/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Haber P, Patel M, Izurieta HS, et al. Postlicensure monitoring of intussusception after RotaTeq vaccination in the United States, February 1, 2006, to September 25, 2007.
10/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reduction in rotavirus after vaccine introduction—United States, 2000-2009.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(41):1146-1149.
3/16/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Shui IM, Baggs J, Patel M, et al. Risk of intussusception following administration of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in US infants.
Last reviewed November 2012 by Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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