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A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.

It is possible to develop Parkinson’s disease with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing Parkinson’s disease. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.

Risk factors include:

Age

Most people develop Parkinson’s disease after the age of 50 (age of onset ranges from 35-85). It is relatively unusual to develop Parkinson’s disease before the age of 40, although it is certainly possible.

Gender

Men are about 1.5 times more likely than women to develop Parkinson’s disease.

Genetic Factors

A number of genes have been associated with Parkinson's disease. Generally, people with these abnormal genes develop Parkinson's disease before the age of 50. This type of Parkinson's tends to run in families. However, the vast majority of Parkinson's disease occurs in older individuals (over the age of 60), and the role of genetics in these individuals is less clear.

Ethnic Background

Research suggests that blacks and Asians have a slightly lower rate of Parkinson’s disease than whites.

Environmental Factors

Exposure to chemicals, such as herbicides and pesticides, is thought to increase your risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. You also have a greater risk of Parkinson’s disease if you live in a rural area, drink well water, or live on a farm . This may be due to an increased exposure to herbicides and pesticides. People who smoke tobacco or ingest caffeine may have a lower risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.

Other Health Conditions

You may have a higher risk of Parkinson's disease if you had certain health conditions, such as:

References:

Alves G, Forsaa EB, Pedersen KF, et al. Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurology. 2008;255(suppl 5):18-32.

Dachsel JC, Farrer MJ. LRRK2 and Parkisnon disease. Arch Neurol. 2010;67(5):542-547.

Kamel L. Epidemiology. Path’s from pesticides to Parkinson’s. Science. 2013;341(6147):722-723.

Kasper DL, Harrison TR. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.

NINDS Parkinson's disease information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons_disease/parkinsons_disease.htm. Updated September 3, 2013. Accessed September 6, 2013.

Obeso JA, et al. Missing pieces in the Parkinsons disease puzzle. Nature Medicine. 2010;16:653-661.

Parkinson disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated August 27, 2013. Accessed September 6, 2013.

Parkinson's disease. American Association of Neurological Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aans.org/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Parkinsons%20Disease.aspx. Accessed September 6, 2013.

Ropper AH, Samuels MA, "Chapter 39. Degenerative Diseases of the Nervous System" (Chapter). Ropper AH, Samuels MA: Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology, 9e: http://www.accessmedicine.com.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/content.aspx?aID=3639002

11/16/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Spinks A, Wasiak J, Bernath V, Villaneuva E. Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD002851.

Last reviewed September 2013 by Rimas Lukas, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.


 
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